Append To List

Arguments

  • list_
  • *values

Adds values to the end of list.

Example:

Append To List ${L1} xxx
Append To List ${L2} x y z

=>

${L1} = ['a', 'xxx']
${L2} = ['a', 'b', 'x', 'y', 'z']

Combine Lists

Arguments

  • *lists

Combines the given lists together and returns the result.

The given lists are not altered by this keyword.

Example:

${x} = Combine Lists ${L1} ${L2}
${y} = Combine Lists ${L1} ${L2} ${L1}

=>

${x} = ['a', 'a', 'b']
${y} = ['a', 'a', 'b', 'a']
${L1} and ${L2} are not changed.

Convert To Dictionary

Arguments

  • item

Converts the given item to a Python dict type.

Mainly useful for converting other mappings to normal dictionaries. This includes converting Robot Framework's own DotDict instances that it uses if variables are created using the &{var} syntax.

Use Create Dictionary from the BuiltIn library for constructing new dictionaries.

New in Robot Framework 2.9.

Convert To List

Arguments

  • item

Converts the given item to a Python list type.

Mainly useful for converting tuples and other iterable to lists. Use Create List from the BuiltIn library for constructing new lists.

Copy Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • deepcopy=False

Returns a copy of the given dictionary.

The deepcopy argument controls should the returned dictionary be a shallow or deep copy. By default returns a shallow copy, but that can be changed by giving deepcopy a true value (see Boolean arguments). This is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier versions always returned shallow copies.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Copy List

Arguments

  • list_
  • deepcopy=False

Returns a copy of the given list.

If the optional deepcopy is given a true value, the returned list is a deep copy. New option in Robot Framework 3.1.2.

The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Count Values In List

Arguments

  • list_
  • value
  • start=0
  • end=None

Returns the number of occurrences of the given value in list.

The search can be narrowed to the selected sublist by the start and end indexes having the same semantics as with Get Slice From List keyword. The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${x} = Count Values In List ${L3} b

=>

${x} = 1
${L3} is not changed

Dictionaries Should Be Equal

Arguments

  • dict1
  • dict2
  • msg=None
  • values=True

Fails if the given dictionaries are not equal.

First the equality of dictionaries' keys is checked and after that all the key value pairs. If there are differences between the values, those are listed in the error message. The types of the dictionaries do not need to be same.

See Lists Should Be Equal for more information about configuring the error message with msg and values arguments.

Dictionary Should Contain Item

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • key
  • value
  • msg=None

An item of key / value must be found in a dictionary.

Value is converted to unicode for comparison.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Contain Key

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • key
  • msg=None

Fails if key is not found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Contain Sub Dictionary

Arguments

  • dict1
  • dict2
  • msg=None
  • values=True

Fails unless all items in dict2 are found from dict1.

See Lists Should Be Equal for more information about configuring the error message with msg and values arguments.

Dictionary Should Contain Value

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • value
  • msg=None

Fails if value is not found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Not Contain Key

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • key
  • msg=None

Fails if key is found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Not Contain Value

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • value
  • msg=None

Fails if value is found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Get Dictionary Items

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • sort_keys=True

Returns items of the given dictionary as a list.

Uses Get Dictionary Keys to get keys and then returns corresponding items. By default keys are sorted and items returned in that order, but this can be changed by giving sort_keys a false value (see Boolean arguments). Notice that with Python 3.5 and earlier dictionary order is undefined unless using ordered dictionaries.

Items are returned as a flat list so that first item is a key, second item is a corresponding value, third item is the second key, and so on.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${sorted} = Get Dictionary Items ${D3}
${unsorted} = Get Dictionary Items ${D3} sort_keys=False

=>

${sorted} = ['a', 1, 'b', 2, 'c', 3]
${unsorted} = ['b', 2, 'a', 1, 'c', 3]    # Order depends on Python version.

sort_keys is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier items were always sorted based on keys.

Get Dictionary Keys

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • sort_keys=True

Returns keys of the given dictionary as a list.

By default keys are returned in sorted order (assuming they are sortable), but they can be returned in the original order by giving sort_keys a false value (see Boolean arguments). Notice that with Python 3.5 and earlier dictionary order is undefined unless using ordered dictionaries.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${sorted} = Get Dictionary Keys ${D3}
${unsorted} = Get Dictionary Keys ${D3} sort_keys=False

=>

${sorted} = ['a', 'b', 'c']
${unsorted} = ['b', 'a', 'c']   # Order depends on Python version.

sort_keys is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier keys were always sorted.

Get Dictionary Values

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • sort_keys=True

Returns values of the given dictionary as a list.

Uses Get Dictionary Keys to get keys and then returns corresponding values. By default keys are sorted and values returned in that order, but this can be changed by giving sort_keys a false value (see Boolean arguments). Notice that with Python 3.5 and earlier dictionary order is undefined unless using ordered dictionaries.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${sorted} = Get Dictionary Values ${D3}
${unsorted} = Get Dictionary Values ${D3} sort_keys=False

=>

${sorted} = [1, 2, 3]
${unsorted} = [2, 1, 3]    # Order depends on Python version.

sort_keys is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier values were always sorted based on keys.

Get From Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • key

Returns a value from the given dictionary based on the given key.

If the given key cannot be found from the dictionary, this keyword fails.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${value} = Get From Dictionary ${D3} b

=>

${value} = 2

Get From List

Arguments

  • list_
  • index

Returns the value specified with an index from list.

The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Index 0 means the first position, 1 the second, and so on. Similarly, -1 is the last position, -2 the second last, and so on. Using an index that does not exist on the list causes an error. The index can be either an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Examples (including Python equivalents in comments):

${x} = Get From List ${L5} 0 # L5[0]
${y} = Get From List ${L5} -2 # L5[-2]

=>

${x} = 'a'
${y} = 'd'
${L5} is not changed

Get Index From List

Arguments

  • list_
  • value
  • start=0
  • end=None

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the value on the list.

The search can be narrowed to the selected sublist by the start and end indexes having the same semantics as with Get Slice From List keyword. In case the value is not found, -1 is returned. The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${x} = Get Index From List ${L5} d

=>

${x} = 3
${L5} is not changed

Get Match Count

Arguments

  • list
  • pattern
  • case_insensitive=False
  • whitespace_insensitive=False

Returns the count of matches to pattern in list.

For more information on pattern, case_insensitive, and whitespace_insensitive, see Should Contain Match.

Examples:

${count}= Get Match Count ${list} a* # ${count} will be the count of strings beginning with 'a'
${count}= Get Match Count ${list} regexp=a.* # ${matches} will be the count of strings beginning with 'a' (regexp version)
${count}= Get Match Count ${list} a* case_insensitive=${True} # ${matches} will be the count of strings beginning with 'a' or 'A'

Get Matches

Arguments

  • list
  • pattern
  • case_insensitive=False
  • whitespace_insensitive=False

Returns a list of matches to pattern in list.

For more information on pattern, case_insensitive, and whitespace_insensitive, see Should Contain Match.

Examples:

${matches}= Get Matches ${list} a* # ${matches} will contain any string beginning with 'a'
${matches}= Get Matches ${list} regexp=a.* # ${matches} will contain any string beginning with 'a' (regexp version)
${matches}= Get Matches ${list} a* case_insensitive=${True} # ${matches} will contain any string beginning with 'a' or 'A'

Get Slice From List

Arguments

  • list_
  • start=0
  • end=None

Returns a slice of the given list between start and end indexes.

The given list is never altered by this keyword.

If both start and end are given, a sublist containing values from start to end is returned. This is the same as list[start:end] in Python. To get all items from the beginning, use 0 as the start value, and to get all items until and including the end, use None (default) as the end value.

Using start or end not found on the list is the same as using the largest (or smallest) available index.

Examples (incl. Python equivalents in comments):

${x} = Get Slice From List ${L5} 2 4 # L5[2:4]
${y} = Get Slice From List ${L5} 1 # L5[1:None]
${z} = Get Slice From List ${L5} end=-2 # L5[0:-2]

=>

${x} = ['c', 'd']
${y} = ['b', 'c', 'd', 'e']
${z} = ['a', 'b', 'c']
${L5} is not changed

Insert Into List

Arguments

  • list_
  • index
  • value

Inserts value into list to the position specified with index.

Index 0 adds the value into the first position, 1 to the second, and so on. Inserting from right works with negative indices so that -1 is the second last position, -2 third last, and so on. Use Append To List to add items to the end of the list.

If the absolute value of the index is greater than the length of the list, the value is added at the end (positive index) or the beginning (negative index). An index can be given either as an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Example:

Insert Into List ${L1} 0 xxx
Insert Into List ${L2} ${-1} xxx

=>

${L1} = ['xxx', 'a']
${L2} = ['a', 'xxx', 'b']

Keep In Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • *keys

Keeps the given keys in the dictionary and removes all other.

If the given key cannot be found from the dictionary, it is ignored.

Example:

Keep In Dictionary ${D5} b x d

=>

${D5} = {'b': 2, 'd': 4}

List Should Contain Sub List

Arguments

  • list1
  • list2
  • msg=None
  • values=True

Fails if not all of the elements in list2 are found in list1.

The order of values and the number of values are not taken into account.

See Lists Should Be Equal for more information about configuring the error message with msg and values arguments.

List Should Contain Value

Arguments

  • list_
  • value
  • msg=None

Fails if the value is not found from list.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

List Should Not Contain Duplicates

Arguments

  • list_
  • msg=None

Fails if any element in the list is found from it more than once.

The default error message lists all the elements that were found from the list multiple times, but it can be overridden by giving a custom msg. All multiple times found items and their counts are also logged.

This keyword works with all iterables that can be converted to a list. The original iterable is never altered.

List Should Not Contain Value

Arguments

  • list_
  • value
  • msg=None

Fails if the value is found from list.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Lists Should Be Equal

Arguments

  • list1
  • list2
  • msg=None
  • values=True
  • names=None
  • ignore_order=False

Fails if given lists are unequal.

The keyword first verifies that the lists have equal lengths, and then it checks are all their values equal. Possible differences between the values are listed in the default error message like Index 4: ABC != Abc. The types of the lists do not need to be the same. For example, Python tuple and list with same content are considered equal.

The error message can be configured using msg and values arguments:

  • If msg is not given, the default error message is used.
  • If msg is given and values gets a value considered true (see Boolean arguments), the error message starts with the given msg followed by a newline and the default message.
  • If msg is given and values is not given a true value, the error message is just the given msg.

The optional names argument can be used for naming the indices shown in the default error message. It can either be a list of names matching the indices in the lists or a dictionary where keys are indices that need to be named. It is not necessary to name all of the indices. When using a dictionary, keys can be either integers or strings that can be converted to integers.

Examples:

${names} = Create List First Name Family Name Email
Lists Should Be Equal ${people1} ${people2} names=${names}
${names} = Create Dictionary 0=First Name 2=Email
Lists Should Be Equal ${people1} ${people2} names=${names}

If the items in index 2 would differ in the above examples, the error message would contain a row like Index 2 (email): [email protected] != [email protected].

The optional ignore_order argument can be used to ignore the order of the elements in the lists. Using it requires items to be sortable. This is new in Robot Framework 3.2.

Example:

${list1} = Create List apple cherry banana
${list2} = Create List cherry banana apple
Lists Should Be Equal ${list1} ${list2} ignore_order=True

Log Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • level=INFO

Logs the size and contents of the dictionary using given level.

Valid levels are TRACE, DEBUG, INFO (default), and WARN.

If you only want to log the size, use keyword Get Length from the BuiltIn library.

Log List

Arguments

  • list_
  • level=INFO

Logs the length and contents of the list using given level.

Valid levels are TRACE, DEBUG, INFO (default), and WARN.

If you only want to the length, use keyword Get Length from the BuiltIn library.

Pop From Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • key
  • default=

Pops the given key from the dictionary and returns its value.

By default the keyword fails if the given key cannot be found from the dictionary. If optional default value is given, it will be returned instead of failing.

Example:

${val}= Pop From Dictionary ${D3} b

=>

${val} = 2
${D3} = {'a': 1, 'c': 3}

New in Robot Framework 2.9.2.

Remove Duplicates

Arguments

  • list_

Returns a list without duplicates based on the given list.

Creates and returns a new list that contains all items in the given list so that one item can appear only once. Order of the items in the new list is the same as in the original except for missing duplicates. Number of the removed duplicates is logged.

Remove From Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • *keys

Removes the given keys from the dictionary.

If the given key cannot be found from the dictionary, it is ignored.

Example:

Remove From Dictionary ${D3} b x y

=>

${D3} = {'a': 1, 'c': 3}

Remove From List

Arguments

  • list_
  • index

Removes and returns the value specified with an index from list.

Index 0 means the first position, 1 the second and so on. Similarly, -1 is the last position, -2 the second last, and so on. Using an index that does not exist on the list causes an error. The index can be either an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Example:

${x} = Remove From List ${L2} 0

=>

${x} = 'a'
${L2} = ['b']

Remove Values From List

Arguments

  • list_
  • *values

Removes all occurrences of given values from list.

It is not an error if a value does not exist in the list at all.

Example:

Remove Values From List ${L4} a c e f

=>

${L4} = ['b', 'd']

Reverse List

Arguments

  • list_

Reverses the given list in place.

Note that the given list is changed and nothing is returned. Use Copy List first, if you need to keep also the original order.

Reverse List ${L3}

=>

${L3} = ['c', 'b', 'a']

Set List Value

Arguments

  • list_
  • index
  • value

Sets the value of list specified by index to the given value.

Index 0 means the first position, 1 the second and so on. Similarly, -1 is the last position, -2 second last, and so on. Using an index that does not exist on the list causes an error. The index can be either an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Example:

Set List Value ${L3} 1 xxx
Set List Value ${L3} -1 yyy

=>

${L3} = ['a', 'xxx', 'yyy']

Set To Dictionary

Arguments

  • dictionary
  • *key_value_pairs
  • **items

Adds the given key_value_pairs and items to the dictionary.

Giving items as key_value_pairs means giving keys and values as separate arguments:

Set To Dictionary ${D1} key value second ${2}

=>

${D1} = {'a': 1, 'key': 'value', 'second': 2}
Set To Dictionary ${D1} key=value second=${2}

The latter syntax is typically more convenient to use, but it has a limitation that keys must be strings.

If given keys already exist in the dictionary, their values are updated.

Should Contain Match

Arguments

  • list
  • pattern
  • msg=None
  • case_insensitive=False
  • whitespace_insensitive=False

Fails if pattern is not found in list.

By default, pattern matching is similar to matching files in a shell and is case-sensitive and whitespace-sensitive. In the pattern syntax, * matches to anything and ? matches to any single character. You can also prepend glob= to your pattern to explicitly use this pattern matching behavior.

If you prepend regexp= to your pattern, your pattern will be used according to the Python re module regular expression syntax. Important note: Backslashes are an escape character, and must be escaped with another backslash (e.g. regexp=\\d{6} to search for \d{6}). See BuiltIn.Should Match Regexp for more details.

If case_insensitive is given a true value (see Boolean arguments), the pattern matching will ignore case.

If whitespace_insensitive is given a true value (see Boolean arguments), the pattern matching will ignore whitespace.

Non-string values in lists are ignored when matching patterns.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

See also Should Not Contain Match.

Examples:

Should Contain Match ${list} a* # Match strings beginning with 'a'.
Should Contain Match ${list} regexp=a.* # Same as the above but with regexp.
Should Contain Match ${list} regexp=\\d{6} # Match strings containing six digits.
Should Contain Match ${list} a* case_insensitive=True # Match strings beginning with 'a' or 'A'.
Should Contain Match ${list} ab* whitespace_insensitive=yes # Match strings beginning with 'ab' with possible whitespace ignored.
Should Contain Match ${list} ab* whitespace_insensitive=true case_insensitive=true # Same as the above but also ignore case.

Should Not Contain Match

Arguments

  • list
  • pattern
  • msg=None
  • case_insensitive=False
  • whitespace_insensitive=False

Fails if pattern is found in list.

Exact opposite of Should Contain Match keyword. See that keyword for information about arguments and usage in general.

Sort List

Arguments

  • list_

Sorts the given list in place.

Sorting fails if items in the list are not comparable with each others. On Python 2 most objects are comparable, but on Python 3 comparing, for example, strings with numbers is not possible.

Note that the given list is changed and nothing is returned. Use Copy List first, if you need to keep also the original order.