Append To Environment Variable

Arguments

  • name
  • *values
  • **config

Appends given values to environment variable name.

If the environment variable already exists, values are added after it, and otherwise a new environment variable is created.

Values are, by default, joined together using the operating system path separator (; on Windows, : elsewhere). This can be changed by giving a separator after the values like separator=value. No other configuration parameters are accepted.

Examples (assuming NAME and NAME2 do not exist initially):

Append To Environment Variable NAME first
Should Be Equal %{NAME} first
Append To Environment Variable NAME second third
Should Be Equal %{NAME} first${:}second${:}third
Append To Environment Variable NAME2 first separator=-
Should Be Equal %{NAME2} first
Append To Environment Variable NAME2 second separator=-
Should Be Equal %{NAME2} first-second

Append To File

Arguments

  • path
  • content
  • encoding=UTF-8

Appends the given content to the specified file.

If the file exists, the given text is written to its end. If the file does not exist, it is created.

Other than not overwriting possible existing files, this keyword works exactly like Create File. See its documentation for more details about the usage.

Note that special encodings SYSTEM and CONSOLE only work with this keyword starting from Robot Framework 3.1.2.

Copy Directory

Arguments

  • source
  • destination

Copies the source directory into the destination.

If the destination exists, the source is copied under it. Otherwise the destination directory and the possible missing intermediate directories are created.

Copy File

Arguments

  • source
  • destination

Copies the source file into the destination.

Source must be a path to an existing file or a glob pattern (see Pattern matching) that matches exactly one file. How the destination is interpreted is explained below.

1) If the destination is an existing file, the source file is copied over it.

2) If the destination is an existing directory, the source file is copied into it. A possible file with the same name as the source is overwritten.

3) If the destination does not exist and it ends with a path separator (/ or \), it is considered a directory. That directory is created and a source file copied into it. Possible missing intermediate directories are also created.

4) If the destination does not exist and it does not end with a path separator, it is considered a file. If the path to the file does not exist, it is created.

The resulting destination path is returned since Robot Framework 2.9.2.

See also Copy Files, Move File, and Move Files.

Copy Files

Arguments

  • *sources_and_destination

Copies specified files to the target directory.

Source files can be given as exact paths and as glob patterns (see Pattern matching). At least one source must be given, but it is not an error if it is a pattern that does not match anything.

Last argument must be the destination directory. If the destination does not exist, it will be created.

Examples:

Copy Files ${dir}/file1.txt ${dir}/file2.txt ${dir2}
Copy Files ${dir}/file-*.txt ${dir2}

See also Copy File, Move File, and Move Files.

Count Directories In Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern=None

Wrapper for Count Items In Directory returning only directory count.

Count Files In Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern=None

Wrapper for Count Items In Directory returning only file count.

Count Items In Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern=None

Returns and logs the number of all items in the given directory.

The argument pattern has the same semantics as with List Directory keyword. The count is returned as an integer, so it must be checked e.g. with the built-in keyword Should Be Equal As Integers.

Create Binary File

Arguments

  • path
  • content

Creates a binary file with the given content.

If content is given as a Unicode string, it is first converted to bytes character by character. All characters with ordinal below 256 can be used and are converted to bytes with same values. Using characters with higher ordinal is an error.

Byte strings, and possible other types, are written to the file as is.

If the directory for the file does not exist, it is created, along with missing intermediate directories.

Examples:

Create Binary File ${dir}/example.png ${image content}
Create Binary File ${path} \x01\x00\xe4\x00

Use Create File if you want to create a text file using a certain encoding. File Should Not Exist can be used to avoid overwriting existing files.

Create Directory

Arguments

  • path

Creates the specified directory.

Also possible intermediate directories are created. Passes if the directory already exists, but fails if the path exists and is not a directory.

Create File

Arguments

  • path
  • content=
  • encoding=UTF-8

Creates a file with the given content and encoding.

If the directory where the file is created does not exist, it is automatically created along with possible missing intermediate directories. Possible existing file is overwritten.

On Windows newline characters (\n) in content are automatically converted to Windows native newline sequence (\r\n).

See Get File for more information about possible encoding values, including special values SYSTEM and CONSOLE.

Examples:

Create File ${dir}/example.txt Hello, world!
Create File ${path} Hyv\xe4 esimerkki Latin-1
Create File /tmp/foo.txt 3\nlines\nhere\n SYSTEM

Use Append To File if you want to append to an existing file and Create Binary File if you need to write bytes without encoding. File Should Not Exist can be used to avoid overwriting existing files.

The support for SYSTEM and CONSOLE encodings is new in Robot Framework 3.0. Automatically converting \n to \r\n on Windows is new in Robot Framework 3.1.

Directory Should Be Empty

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails unless the specified directory is empty.

The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Directory Should Exist

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails unless the given path points to an existing directory.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Directory Should Not Be Empty

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails if the specified directory is empty.

The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Directory Should Not Exist

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails if the given path points to an existing file.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Empty Directory

Arguments

  • path

Deletes all the content from the given directory.

Deletes both files and sub-directories, but the specified directory itself if not removed. Use Remove Directory if you want to remove the whole directory.

Environment Variable Should Be Set

Arguments

  • name
  • msg=None

Fails if the specified environment variable is not set.

The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Environment Variable Should Not Be Set

Arguments

  • name
  • msg=None

Fails if the specified environment variable is set.

The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

File Should Be Empty

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails unless the specified file is empty.

The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

File Should Exist

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails unless the given path points to an existing file.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

File Should Not Be Empty

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails if the specified directory is empty.

The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

File Should Not Exist

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails if the given path points to an existing file.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Get Binary File

Arguments

  • path

Returns the contents of a specified file.

This keyword reads the specified file and returns the contents as is. See also Get File.

Get Environment Variable

Arguments

  • name
  • default=None

Returns the value of an environment variable with the given name.

If no such environment variable is set, returns the default value, if given. Otherwise fails the test case.

Returned variables are automatically decoded to Unicode using the system encoding.

Note that you can also access environment variables directly using the variable syntax %{ENV_VAR_NAME}.

Get Environment Variables

Arguments

Returns currently available environment variables as a dictionary.

Both keys and values are decoded to Unicode using the system encoding. Altering the returned dictionary has no effect on the actual environment variables.

Get File

Arguments

  • path
  • encoding=UTF-8
  • encoding_errors=strict

Returns the contents of a specified file.

This keyword reads the specified file and returns the contents. Line breaks in content are converted to platform independent form. See also Get Binary File.

encoding defines the encoding of the file. The default value is UTF-8, which means that UTF-8 and ASCII encoded files are read correctly. In addition to the encodings supported by the underlying Python implementation, the following special encoding values can be used:

  • SYSTEM: Use the default system encoding.
  • CONSOLE: Use the console encoding. Outside Windows this is same as the system encoding.

encoding_errors argument controls what to do if decoding some bytes fails. All values accepted by decode method in Python are valid, but in practice the following values are most useful:

  • strict: Fail if characters cannot be decoded (default).
  • ignore: Ignore characters that cannot be decoded.
  • replace: Replace characters that cannot be decoded with a replacement character.

Support for SYSTEM and CONSOLE encodings in Robot Framework 3.0.

Get File Size

Arguments

  • path

Returns and logs file size as an integer in bytes.

Get Modified Time

Arguments

  • path
  • format=timestamp

Returns the last modification time of a file or directory.

How time is returned is determined based on the given format string as follows. Note that all checks are case-insensitive. Returned time is also automatically logged.

1) If format contains the word epoch, the time is returned in seconds after the UNIX epoch. The return value is always an integer.

2) If format contains any of the words year, month, day, hour, min or sec, only the selected parts are returned. The order of the returned parts is always the one in the previous sentence and the order of the words in format is not significant. The parts are returned as zero-padded strings (e.g. May -> 05).

3) Otherwise, and by default, the time is returned as a timestamp string in the format 2006-02-24 15:08:31.

Examples (when the modified time of ${CURDIR} is 2006-03-29 15:06:21):

${time} = Get Modified Time ${CURDIR}
${secs} = Get Modified Time ${CURDIR} epoch
${year} = Get Modified Time ${CURDIR} return year
${y} ${d} = Get Modified Time ${CURDIR} year,day
@{time} = Get Modified Time ${CURDIR} year,month,day,hour,min,sec

=>

  • ${time} = '2006-03-29 15:06:21'
  • ${secs} = 1143637581
  • ${year} = '2006'
  • ${y} = '2006' & ${d} = '29'
  • @{time} = ['2006', '03', '29', '15', '06', '21']

Grep File

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern
  • encoding=UTF-8
  • encoding_errors=strict

Returns the lines of the specified file that match the pattern.

This keyword reads a file from the file system using the defined path, encoding and encoding_errors similarly as Get File. A difference is that only the lines that match the given pattern are returned. Lines are returned as a single string catenated back together with newlines and the number of matched lines is automatically logged. Possible trailing newline is never returned.

A line matches if it contains the pattern anywhere in it and it does not need to match the pattern fully. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction, and in this case matching is case-sensitive.

Examples:

${errors} = Grep File /var/log/myapp.log ERROR
${ret} = Grep File ${CURDIR}/file.txt [Ww]ildc??d ex*ple

If more complex pattern matching is needed, it is possible to use Get File in combination with String library keywords like Get Lines Matching Regexp.

Join Path

Arguments

  • base
  • *parts

Joins the given path part(s) to the given base path.

The path separator (/ or \) is inserted when needed and the possible absolute paths handled as expected. The resulted path is also normalized.

Examples:

${path} = Join Path my path
${p2} = Join Path my/ path/
${p3} = Join Path my path my file.txt
${p4} = Join Path my /path
${p5} = Join Path /my/path/ .. path2

=>

  • ${path} = 'my/path'
  • ${p2} = 'my/path'
  • ${p3} = 'my/path/my/file.txt'
  • ${p4} = '/path'
  • ${p5} = '/my/path2'

Join Paths

Arguments

  • base
  • *paths

Joins given paths with base and returns resulted paths.

See Join Path for more information.

Examples:

@{p1} = Join Paths base example other
@{p2} = Join Paths /my/base /example other
@{p3} = Join Paths my/base example/path/ other one/more

=>

  • @{p1} = ['base/example', 'base/other']
  • @{p2} = ['/example', '/my/base/other']
  • @{p3} = ['my/base/example/path', 'my/base/other', 'my/base/one/more']

List Directories In Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern=None
  • absolute=False

Wrapper for List Directory that returns only directories.

List Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern=None
  • absolute=False

Returns and logs items in a directory, optionally filtered with pattern.

File and directory names are returned in case-sensitive alphabetical order, e.g. ['A Name', 'Second', 'a lower case name', 'one more']. Implicit directories . and .. are not returned. The returned items are automatically logged.

File and directory names are returned relative to the given path (e.g. 'file.txt') by default. If you want them be returned in absolute format (e.g. '/home/robot/file.txt'), give the absolute argument a true value (see Boolean arguments).

If pattern is given, only items matching it are returned. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction, and in this case matching is case-sensitive.

Examples (using also other List Directory variants):

@{items} = List Directory ${TEMPDIR}
@{files} = List Files In Directory /tmp *.txt absolute
${count} = Count Files In Directory ${CURDIR} ???

List Files In Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • pattern=None
  • absolute=False

Wrapper for List Directory that returns only files.

Log Environment Variables

Arguments

  • level=INFO

Logs all environment variables using the given log level.

Environment variables are also returned the same way as with Get Environment Variables keyword.

Log File

Arguments

  • path
  • encoding=UTF-8
  • encoding_errors=strict

Wrapper for Get File that also logs the returned file.

The file is logged with the INFO level. If you want something else, just use Get File and the built-in keyword Log with the desired level.

See Get File for more information about encoding and encoding_errors arguments.

Move Directory

Arguments

  • source
  • destination

Moves the source directory into a destination.

Uses Copy Directory keyword internally, and source and destination arguments have exactly same semantics as with that keyword.

Move File

Arguments

  • source
  • destination

Moves the source file into the destination.

Arguments have exactly same semantics as with Copy File keyword. Destination file path is returned since Robot Framework 2.9.2.

If the source and destination are on the same filesystem, rename operation is used. Otherwise file is copied to the destination filesystem and then removed from the original filesystem.

See also Move Files, Copy File, and Copy Files.

Move Files

Arguments

  • *sources_and_destination

Moves specified files to the target directory.

Arguments have exactly same semantics as with Copy Files keyword.

See also Move File, Copy File, and Copy Files.

Normalize Path

Arguments

  • path
  • case_normalize=False

Normalizes the given path.

  • Collapses redundant separators and up-level references.
  • Converts / to \ on Windows.
  • Replaces initial ~ or ~user by that user's home directory. The latter is not supported on Jython.
  • If case_normalize is given a true value (see Boolean arguments) on Windows, converts the path to all lowercase. New in Robot Framework 3.1.

Examples:

${path1} = Normalize Path abc/
${path2} = Normalize Path abc/../def
${path3} = Normalize Path abc/./def//ghi
${path4} = Normalize Path ~robot/stuff

=>

  • ${path1} = 'abc'
  • ${path2} = 'def'
  • ${path3} = 'abc/def/ghi'
  • ${path4} = '/home/robot/stuff'

On Windows result would use \ instead of / and home directory would be different.

Remove Directory

Arguments

  • path
  • recursive=False

Removes the directory pointed to by the given path.

If the second argument recursive is given a true value (see Boolean arguments), the directory is removed recursively. Otherwise removing fails if the directory is not empty.

If the directory pointed to by the path does not exist, the keyword passes, but it fails, if the path points to a file.

Remove Environment Variable

Arguments

  • *names

Deletes the specified environment variable.

Does nothing if the environment variable is not set.

It is possible to remove multiple variables by passing them to this keyword as separate arguments.

Remove File

Arguments

  • path

Removes a file with the given path.

Passes if the file does not exist, but fails if the path does not point to a regular file (e.g. it points to a directory).

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. If the path is a pattern, all files matching it are removed.

Remove Files

Arguments

  • *paths

Uses Remove File to remove multiple files one-by-one.

Example:

Remove Files ${TEMPDIR}${/}foo.txt ${TEMPDIR}${/}bar.txt ${TEMPDIR}${/}zap.txt

Run

Arguments

  • command

Runs the given command in the system and returns the output.

The execution status of the command is not checked by this keyword, and it must be done separately based on the returned output. If the execution return code is needed, either Run And Return RC or Run And Return RC And Output can be used.

The standard error stream is automatically redirected to the standard output stream by adding 2>&1 after the executed command. This automatic redirection is done only when the executed command does not contain additional output redirections. You can thus freely forward the standard error somewhere else, for example, like my_command 2>stderr.txt.

The returned output contains everything written into the standard output or error streams by the command (unless either of them is redirected explicitly). Many commands add an extra newline (\n) after the output to make it easier to read in the console. To ease processing the returned output, this possible trailing newline is stripped by this keyword.

Examples:

${output} = Run ls -lhF /tmp
Log ${output}
${result} = Run ${CURDIR}${/}tester.py arg1 arg2
Should Not Contain ${result} FAIL
${stdout} = Run /opt/script.sh 2>/tmp/stderr.txt
Should Be Equal ${stdout} TEST PASSED
File Should Be Empty /tmp/stderr.txt

TIP: Run Process keyword provided by the Process library supports better process configuration and is generally recommended as a replacement for this keyword.

Run And Return Rc

Arguments

  • command

Runs the given command in the system and returns the return code.

The return code (RC) is returned as a positive integer in range from 0 to 255 as returned by the executed command. On some operating systems (notable Windows) original return codes can be something else, but this keyword always maps them to the 0-255 range. Since the RC is an integer, it must be checked e.g. with the keyword Should Be Equal As Integers instead of Should Be Equal (both are built-in keywords).

Examples:

${rc} = Run and Return RC ${CURDIR}${/}script.py arg
Should Be Equal As Integers ${rc} 0
${rc} = Run and Return RC /path/to/example.rb arg1 arg2
Should Be True 0 < ${rc} < 42

See Run and Run And Return RC And Output if you need to get the output of the executed command.

TIP: Run Process keyword provided by the Process library supports better process configuration and is generally recommended as a replacement for this keyword.

Run And Return Rc And Output

Arguments

  • command

Runs the given command in the system and returns the RC and output.

The return code (RC) is returned similarly as with Run And Return RC and the output similarly as with Run.

Examples:

${rc} ${output} = Run and Return RC and Output ${CURDIR}${/}mytool
Should Be Equal As Integers ${rc} 0
Should Not Contain ${output} FAIL
${rc} ${stdout} = Run and Return RC and Output /opt/script.sh 2>/tmp/stderr.txt
Should Be True ${rc} > 42
Should Be Equal ${stdout} TEST PASSED
File Should Be Empty /tmp/stderr.txt

TIP: Run Process keyword provided by the Process library supports better process configuration and is generally recommended as a replacement for this keyword.

Set Environment Variable

Arguments

  • name
  • value

Sets an environment variable to a specified value.

Values are converted to strings automatically. Set variables are automatically encoded using the system encoding.

Set Modified Time

Arguments

  • path
  • mtime

Sets the file modification and access times.

Changes the modification and access times of the given file to the value determined by mtime. The time can be given in different formats described below. Note that all checks involving strings are case-insensitive. Modified time can only be set to regular files.

1) If mtime is a number, or a string that can be converted to a number, it is interpreted as seconds since the UNIX epoch (1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC). This documentation was originally written about 1177654467 seconds after the epoch.

2) If mtime is a timestamp, that time will be used. Valid timestamp formats are YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss and YYYYMMDD hhmmss.

3) If mtime is equal to NOW, the current local time is used.

4) If mtime is equal to UTC, the current time in UTC is used.

5) If mtime is in the format like NOW - 1 day or UTC + 1 hour 30 min, the current local/UTC time plus/minus the time specified with the time string is used. The time string format is described in an appendix of Robot Framework User Guide.

Examples:

Set Modified Time /path/file 1177654467 # Time given as epoch seconds
Set Modified Time /path/file 2007-04-27 9:14:27 # Time given as a timestamp
Set Modified Time /path/file NOW # The local time of execution
Set Modified Time /path/file NOW - 1 day # 1 day subtracted from the local time
Set Modified Time /path/file UTC + 1h 2min 3s # 1h 2min 3s added to the UTC time

Should Exist

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails unless the given path (file or directory) exists.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Should Not Exist

Arguments

  • path
  • msg=None

Fails if the given path (file or directory) exists.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. The default error message can be overridden with the msg argument.

Split Extension

Arguments

  • path

Splits the extension from the given path.

The given path is first normalized (e.g. possible trailing path separators removed, special directories .. and . removed). The base path and extension are returned as separate components so that the dot used as an extension separator is removed. If the path contains no extension, an empty string is returned for it. Possible leading and trailing dots in the file name are never considered to be extension separators.

Examples:

${path} ${ext} = Split Extension file.extension
${p2} ${e2} = Split Extension path/file.ext
${p3} ${e3} = Split Extension path/file
${p4} ${e4} = Split Extension p1/../p2/file.ext
${p5} ${e5} = Split Extension path/.file.ext
${p6} ${e6} = Split Extension path/.file

=>

  • ${path} = 'file' & ${ext} = 'extension'
  • ${p2} = 'path/file' & ${e2} = 'ext'
  • ${p3} = 'path/file' & ${e3} = ''
  • ${p4} = 'p2/file' & ${e4} = 'ext'
  • ${p5} = 'path/.file' & ${e5} = 'ext'
  • ${p6} = 'path/.file' & ${e6} = ''

Split Path

Arguments

  • path

Splits the given path from the last path separator (/ or \).

The given path is first normalized (e.g. a possible trailing path separator is removed, special directories .. and . removed). The parts that are split are returned as separate components.

Examples:

${path1} ${dir} = Split Path abc/def
${path2} ${file} = Split Path abc/def/ghi.txt
${path3} ${d2} = Split Path abc/../def/ghi/

=>

  • ${path1} = 'abc' & ${dir} = 'def'
  • ${path2} = 'abc/def' & ${file} = 'ghi.txt'
  • ${path3} = 'def' & ${d2} = 'ghi'

Touch

Arguments

  • path

Emulates the UNIX touch command.

Creates a file, if it does not exist. Otherwise changes its access and modification times to the current time.

Fails if used with the directories or the parent directory of the given file does not exist.

Wait Until Created

Arguments

  • path
  • timeout=1 minute

Waits until the given file or directory is created.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. If the path is a pattern, the keyword returns when an item matching it is created.

The optional timeout can be used to control the maximum time of waiting. The timeout is given as a timeout string, e.g. in a format 15 seconds, 1min 10s or just 10. The time string format is described in an appendix of Robot Framework User Guide.

If the timeout is negative, the keyword is never timed-out. The keyword returns immediately, if the path already exists.

Wait Until Removed

Arguments

  • path
  • timeout=1 minute

Waits until the given file or directory is removed.

The path can be given as an exact path or as a glob pattern. The pattern matching syntax is explained in introduction. If the path is a pattern, the keyword waits until all matching items are removed.

The optional timeout can be used to control the maximum time of waiting. The timeout is given as a timeout string, e.g. in a format 15 seconds, 1min 10s or just 10. The time string format is described in an appendix of Robot Framework User Guide.

If the timeout is negative, the keyword is never timed-out. The keyword returns immediately, if the path does not exist in the first place.